PAPERHISTORY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION
M. Rusdi 409 272
Jamnisef 409 189Zeni Mardesnita 409 223Septika Hasyani 409 229Mike Aisyah 409 049
SupervisorDr. Rehani, M. Ag
ISLAMIC EDUCATION DEPARTMENT MANAGEMENT (MPI)Faculty of MTState Islamic Institute (IAIN)Imam Bonjol PadangT.A 2012 AD / 1433 H
Assalamuilaikum wr.wbSpoken praise and gratitude to Allah, who has given his grace and guidance, so that the paper can be completed smoothly. Prayers and greetings also not forget the spoken to the Prophet Muhammad, as Uswah in life, as well as to the family, and his followers until the end of time.
In the completion of this paper is inseparable from the support and guidance of various parties, especially the supervisor subjects History of Islamic Education (SPI), namely Dr. Rehani, M. Ag, until the completion of this paper well. For that say thank you to him and also to all those who contribute to the publication of this paper.
We are fully aware that this paper still much perfection keilmiahannya, it is expected to criticism and suggestions from all parties constructive, so that future better yet, before say thank you.
Wassalamu alaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh
Padang, January 24, 2012
TABLE OF CONTENTSFOREWORD………………………………..... .TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………..... .CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ………………………..CHAPTER II DISCUSSION…………………………..
2.1 Background ............................................... ,
2.2 Effect of Leninisasi Against Development
Islamic thought ...............................................
CHAPTER III CLOSING
3.1 Conclusion ................................................ ....
3.2 Suggestions ................................................ ............
PORKPRELIMINARYExamines the institutions of Islamic education in the early era, meaning a close look at the various components and systems as well as the methods used in the implementation of education at that time. Judging from the actual history of eye glass creation process of Islamic educational institutions are very democratic. This can be seen in the creation of the first man, for example, Allah has made dialogue and debate directly to the creation, the angel. As Allah teaches basic competencies for our Ancestors Prophet Adam, various names of objects. At the time of the comprehensive exam between Angel and Prophet Adam by God, Adam at that time declared successful mastering basic competencies than the Angels.That process continues, performed by God in the delivery of revelation to the Prophet and His Messenger on the surface of the earth. Although at the time, historical data has not been revealed information agencies such as what is used by God at that time. But the process is carried out through the educational institutions have successfully performed change of knowledge and change of value to learners, namely the Prophets and Messengers.Through this short article we will try to discuss in chapter II, more in how the background of the birth of Islamic educational institutions as well as institutions such as Shuffah, Kuttab, Halaqah, mosque, library, Majlis, houses Ulama, Hospitals and Badiah (Desert, Bedouin village residence).
CHAPTER IIDISCUSSIONA. Background The development of Islamic Education InstitutionsArab communities outside the accepted Islam, in general, has been living in a culture system that has evolved, exceeds the development of the cultural system of the Arabs during the fall of Islam. Islam is a religion of nature, religion is a basic human potential by grounding the instructions of God. Islamic education means to cultivate and develop the nature porensi and embody the Islamic system of human culture during the growth of Islamic culture, the dialogue exciting antaraa principles of Islamic culture sebagimana summarized in the Koran to the culture that has developed at the time. Concrete forms are the emergence of various schools and schools in various aspects of Islamic culture.Islamic education in essence is the process of passing the value of Islamic culture to the younger generations and develop it so as to achieve and provide maximum benefits for life and human life in accordance with the level of development, Islamic education period on this means planting widely values and Islamic culture to grow invitation fertile environment wider.Arab communities outside the accepted Islam, in general, has been living in a culture system that has evolved, exceeds the development of the cultural system of the Arabs during the fall of Islam. Islam is a religion of nature, religion is a basic human potential by grounding the instructions of God. Islamic education means to cultivate and develop the nature porensi and embody the Islamic system of human culture during the growth of Islamic culture, the dialogue exciting antaraa principles of Islamic culture sebagimana summarized in the Koran to the culture that has developed at the time. Concrete forms are the emergence of various schools and schools in various aspects of Islamic culture.The companions have problems after Prophet Muhammad's death, such as the question of who and how to replace it. Political exclusion and leadership system is experiencing changes in subsequent periods and ending with the success of Muawiyah seized power and ruled that the Caliphate is hereditary position.With the development of the political system develops a pattern and the pattern of community life. Long life pattern by some people to be maintained, giving rise to new problems faced by the friends, such as the emergence of legal problems that the new nature so as to encourage the friends to establish legal provisions.Faced with the theological thought of Christianity that has developed before the advent of Islam, it is also developing a system of Islamic thought. Islam arose in the thought that is theological, which later became known as the science of Kalam. At the time of Prophet Muhammad thought not much developed, because of all the problems can be asked directly to him. After he died and Muslims experience a variety of new problems, then these thoughts began to emerge and develop .Islamic Education Institutions Before Kebangkaitan Madarsah, including:1. Shuffah.At the time of the Prophet, shuffah is a place that is used for educational activities. Usually this place provides the salaries for those newcomers and those who are poor. Here, students are taught to read and memorize the Quran properly and Islamic law under the direct guidance of the Prophet. In the next development, the school also offers lessons shuffah basic fundamentals of arithmetic, medicine, astronomy, and geology .2. Al Kuttab / MaktabAlkuttab is the oldest Islamic institution, Alkuttab founded by the Arabs at the time of Abu Bakr, that is, after they do conquests and after they have relations with nations that have advanced.According to Asma Hasan Fahmi, in his book History and philosophy of Islamic education, al Kuttab was founded by an Arab to teach the Koran to children anank. In the period of the Prophet, because the development of a growing number of Muslims who study religion, including children who are feared to contaminate the mosque, then comes the institution in addition to the mosque as al Kuttab.After Islam came, form and function Kuttab unchanged. At the beginning of Islam until the era of the first four caliphs, is generally performed without any payment. Among the residents of Mecca who first learned to write Arabic in Kuttab is Sofyan ibn Umayya ibn Abd Shams and Abu Qais bin Abdul Manaf bin Zuhroh bin Kilab. Both learned from Basyr bin A. Malik, who learned it from Hirah.Since the 8th century AD, kuttab began to teach general knowledge in addition to knowledge of Islam. This occurs as a result of hostile Islamic cultural heritage perubaahan Hellenism so much experience in the field of Islamic education curriculum . Alkuttab club plays in the life of Islam as it teaches the Koran to children is considered a very necessary thing, so most of the scholars believe the Koran to teach such children kifayah obligatory. Besides, the Prophet himself stated that it was necessary to learn, so he obliges each prisoner of war of Badr to teach twelve children of the Muslims in exchange for a ransom of war .Versatility literacy in social and political life of Muslims turned out to play an important role, since the time of Prophet Muhammad used as communication media propaganda to the nations outside the Arab nation. At first, in the early development of Islam, Kuttab held at the home teachers concerned and taught is solely writing and reading, then in the first century of Hijra nascent kind Kuttab, which in addition to providing teaching writing and reading also points religion .3. HalaqahHalaqah means circle, namely the teaching-learning process conducted in which students encircling teacher. A teacher usually sits explains floor, read the essay or leave a comment on the work of other people's thinking. Halaqah activity can occur in mosques or homes . Halaqah activity is not specific to teach or discuss religious knowledge but also general science, including philosophy. Therefore, this halakah grouped into Islamic educational institutions were open general science .4. MajlisThe term majlis has dipdakai in education since the first century of Islam. At first he refers to the meaning of the places the implementation of teaching and learning. In the next development in the world is currently experiencing a golden age of Islamic education, majlis means teaching session where activists  or discussion occurred. As the development of knowledge in Islam, majlis is used as the transfer of knowledge so that the council are manifold.5. MasjidHistory of Islamic education is closely associated with the mosque, because it was when we membicaarakan mosque means we are talking about a place that is seen as fundamental to teaching science and Islamic culture. The circles lesson has been held in Masjid mosque since it was founded and circumstances continue sepangjang period, with unfailing throughout the lands of Islam .The process that brought the mosque as the center and the mosque where knowledge is due to the start of the first to study the science of religion newborn and to know the basics, laws and objectives. Since established Mosque in the days of the Prophet, the mosque has menjadai centers and information-many problems of the Muslims, both concerning education and socioeconomic  The education curriculum in mosques usually a pedestal obtain government officials, such as Qadi, Khatib and Imam Mosque , See between the mosque and the power it can be said that the mosque is a formal education institution .6. houses ScholarsAlthough in fact, the house is not a good place to give a general lesson in the glory days of the development of science and culture of Islam, many also houses the scholars and scientists to be a place of learning and developing science. This is generally due to the scholars and scientists are concerned not possibly giving lessons in mosques, while those students who are interested to learn the science of it .Prophet Muhammad made the house of Arqam ibn Abi Arqam as a gathering place for friends in conveying revelation from Allah through the angel Gabriel, this proves that the house is the first educational institution in Islam .7. shops Books and PerpusakaanAt permulaaan Abbasids, where science and Islamic culture has grown and developed and followed by the writing of the books in various branches of science, then stand the book shops. At first stores the book serves as a buying and selling books tela written in a variety of knowledge that has evolved the future.Then the stores evolved functions not only as the buying and selling books, but also a gathering place for scholars, poets and scientists pegetahuan other, to discuss, debate, exchange of thoughts in various studies Ilmiyah and also serves as an educational institution in order to develop a wide range of science and culture of Islam .In addition to the bookstore, the library also has an important role in the transmission of the Islamic scientific activities. The libraries in the Islamic world in its heyday, it became an important cultural aspects, as well as a place of learning and a source of bearers of science .8. HospitalHospitals in classical times was not only a place to care for and treat people who are sick, but also educate the personnel associated with treatment and care. At that time, research and experiments in the field of medicine and drugs is also implemented so that medicine and pharmaceuticals is growing rapidly .Hospitals also a place pratikum of medical schools established outside the hospital, but not infrequently also medical schools are not established separately from the hospital. Thus the bulk sick in the Islamic world also serves as an educational institution .9. Badiah (Desert, Bedouin village residence)Since developing the breadth of Islam, Arabic is used as the language of instruction by nations outside the Arab Moslems, especially in cities that a lot of mixing with other languages, the Arabic widespread, but Arabic tend to lose the authenticity and purity ,By karen it, badiah-badiah be a native Arabic lessons and pure. So many children Khalifah, scholars, and the Experts Science went to badiah-badiah in order to study linguistics and Arabic literature. By doing so, badiah-badiah have functioned as an educational institution .A. Effect of Hellenization Against Development of Islamic ThoughtHellenization is a process of change of civilization, of Western civilization to the Islamic civilization. Society under the auspices of Christians who tend to reject the science and culture of thinking or philosophy and fathers of the Christian church use perbahasa for their hatred of knowledge, "ignorance is the source of the error" at the instigation of the fathers of the church library on earth scorch, schools of philosophy closed , teachers were expelled and banned people read the works of the ancient Greek and Roman authors.Scientists considered infidels and out of religion AD, they humiliated tortured and punished with various penalties, the prelates stricken moral transgression that reject church offices was obtained by deceit, anger liver, looseness, so the western nations experienced a period of darkness due church doctrine.Some scientists ran away to Asia and settled in Syria, Iraq and the Arabian Peninsula. There, the scientists were free to teach the science and Greek philosophy. When the Western world is in the dark times, especially in the field of science as a result of the doctrine of the church, the Islamic world is busy doing the assessment and development of science is so rapid that gave birth to civilization high value. It is driven in terms of the internal form of Islam that is very encouraging his people to developing science. Where the first revelation of the Prophet Muhammad was Iqra command 'which shows that Islam gives great attention to science. And driven in terms of externally acquired through kekeuatan education system that is an integral and dynamic, as well as the encouragement of the authorities to provide the means needed by scientists to develop theories even respect the findings of scientists at very high  , With the Hellenization is very beneficial for Islamic education, the transfer of knowledge to advance the Muslims of western nations.The curriculum is taught in Islamic educational institutions in the early period is simply the science of religion. However, after the persentuan with Hellenic civilization, the subjects offered not only religious knowledge, but also general knowledge, such as philosophy, mathematics and medicine. On this basis, the Islamic educational institutions are classified into two, namely the educational institutions of formal and informal educational institutions. Informal education institutions usually offer general lessons while formal, no.Here it appears that when it has emerged a general view of the dichotomy between science and religion in the Islamic educational institutions. This occurs as a result of fighting between Islamic and Hellenistic civilization. The dichotomy view still occurred until now. In fact, Islam does not recognize the distinction between the general science of religion with science. On the contrary, the peak of the history and civilization of Islam is precisely the case when the merging of religious knowledge with knowledge
CHAPTER IIICOVERA. ConclusionThe existence of institutions of Islamic education is the answer to the times, appear, grow, rooted in society. One is the Islamic educational institutions. Comes after God gave a mandate to the Prophet Muhammad in the Cave of Hira, marked by the decline in letter al Alaq verses 1-5. The first revelation demands of human desires at that time should make the process of education and learning.Allah instruction is executed by the Prophet to gather his companions in the house of Arqam ibn Arqam well as direct acting as Mudarris. Then berlansunglah first institution of Islamic educational institutions in Islam, then developed in the form Shuffah Kuttab, Halaqah, mosque, library, Majlis, houses Ulama, Hospitals and Badiah (Desert, Bedouin village residence)B. SuggestionsDemikialah revision of this paper is made with as they should, but can not be separated from the advice and constructive criticism of pemabaca dear to the improvement of these scholarly papers in the future. We hope the big, hopefully this paper bermamfaat for us all.
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