SITUS BERITA, ILMU KOMPUTER, BLOGGING, KAJIAN ISLAM, CONTOH SURAT, CONTOH MAKALAH, CONTOH SKIRPSI DLL

SKILL EXPLAIN. Explains ItselfSkills are very important for the teacher to explain because most of the conversation teacher who has an influence on the students' understanding is a form of explanation. Demonstrated mastery of skills explains that teachers will allow students to have a solid understanding of the problems described, as well as increased student engagement in learning activities.Is described verbally explain about some object, circumstances, facts and data in accordance with the time and the laws in force. Explaining is an important aspect that must be held by teachers, given that most learning requires teachers to give an explanation. Therefore, to explain the skills need to be improved in order to achieve an optimal result.No matter how clever a teacher in mastering a material, will be in vain if it is less or not be able to master the skills to explain learning materials under their control, and vice versa, the complete lack of a teacher, if only skilled explain the lesson, but not mastered the material taught of course the ideal is a master teacher teaching materials cultivated and have a strategy in explaining the lesson materials effectively making it easy to understand the student.Skills explained in teaching can be interpreted as presenting information orally organized systematically, (Usman, 2006: 88) on an object, circumstances, facts and data in accordance with the time and the laws in force (Mulyasa, 2007: 80). Emphasis explanation was student reasoning process and not indoctrination (Hasibuan and Moedjiono, 2006: 70). Based on that idea, it can be concluded that the lesson is to explain the skills of teachers in delivering learning materials to students verbally organized in a planned and systematic so that the lesson material presented teachers with easy to understand students.Explaining the core skills that must be held by teachers (Sudirwo, 2002: 107). The reasons behind them are (Hasibuan and Moedjiono, 2006: 70) as follows:1) In general, the interaction of oral communication in the classroom dominated by the teacher;2) Most of the activities of teachers are informed. Therefore, the effectiveness of the talks need to be improved;3) The explanation given teachers are often not clear to the students, and the only obvious to the teachers themselves;4) Not all students can dig itself on information obtained from the book. This fact requires the teacher to explain to students for certain things.5) Source of information available that can be utilized students are often very limited.6) Teachers often can not distinguish between telling and provide an explanation.B. Purpose Explain1) Guiding students to understand the concepts, laws, principles or procedures.2) Guiding the students answered questions in reasoning.3) Engaging learners to think.4) To get feedback on students understanding.5) Assist learners appreciate some of the reasoning process.C. Principles ExplainThere are several principles that should be considered in giving an explanation.1) The explanation can be given for learning, both at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of the lesson, among others:2) Explanation should attract the attention of learners and in accordance with standard materials and basic competencies.3) The explanation can be given to answer questions or explain the material learners standards already direncana-right to form the basic competencies and achieve learning objectives.4) The material described must be in accordance with the basic competencies, and meaningful to learners.5) The explanation given must comply with the background and the level of ability of learners.D. Instructions In ExplainTo be able to explain well the lesson material that the teacher should consider practical guide describes the following skills (Sudirwo, 2002: 107-108):1) Using clear language, good words, ungka¬pan and volume of his voice.2) The sound should be heard through the back of the class.3) The sound varies, kadang¬ sometimes high, sometimes low in accordance with the tone that is being described.4) Avoid words that are not necessary; and has no meaning at all for example: e ..., um ... what is ... what it is ....5) Avoid the word "possible" that one should definitely use for example but it is always said to be possible. So that what is described as everything always use the word "may" then acquired by the students is not ke¬pastian but possibility.6) The terms of new foreign and should be explained thoroughly, so it does not result in any verbal among students.7) Berbahasalah well and properly.8) Examine students' understanding of the teacher's explanation, it is clear or not. If it is not yet clear repeat things that are not yet understood;9) Give an example of a real suit sehari¬ day life;10) The explanation can be given deductive and inductive and kaitkanlah with generalizations;11) We recommend using multi-media to a particular subject;12) Explain the chart to explain the relationship and hierarchy;13) Accept the feedback from students to teachers' lessons;14) Give students opportunities provide samples according to their experiences.15) Give emphasis on certain parts of the material being described with verbal cues. For example "The most important thing is", "Take a good look this concept", or "Look, that's a bit difficult".E. The Things That No Good Do Teachers In Time Explains1) Facing the chalkboard, his back to the students too long.2) Pacing in front of the right and left, forward and back too often.3) Describe while sitting in a chair teachers continuously.4) Empty the board, there is no text or pictures on the board.5) The sound less loud, audible only by students who are about teachers, students sitting in the back can not hear the teacher's voice.F. Laws In ExplainEffectiveness describes the subject matter can also be achieved with regard to Effective Communication Law 5 (The 5 Inevitable Laws of Effective Communication). The fifth law is summed up in one word that reflects the essence of the communication itself is REACH (Respect, Empathy, Audible, Clarity, Humble). Means to embrace or grab. Because we believe that communication is basically how our efforts to grab the attention, love, interest, concern, sympathy, response, and the positive response from the students (Prijosaksono, A. and Sembel, R., 2002)a) The first law in communicating effectively, in the classroom is respect comity and respect for students. This is the first law in communicating with others. Teachers must have an attitude (attitude) to respect and appreciate the students. Teachers must remember that in principle the human being wants to be appreciated and considered important. If teachers even have to criticize the students, do it with full respect for the dignity and pride of the students.b) The second law is empathy, the ability of teachers to put yourself in situations or conditions faced by students. Empathy will enable teachers to deliver the message (message) in the manner and attitude that will allow recipients of the message (receiver) to receive it. Therefore, in speaking in the classroom, teachers must first understand the background, class, social strata, regardless of age, education, needs, interests, expectations and so on, from students (audiences). So before teachers establish communication or sending messages, teachers need to know and understand with empathy the prospective recipient of the message. So the message will be delivered without a hitch psychological or rejection of the student. Empathy can also mean the ability to hear and be perceptive or ready to accept input or feedback whatsoever with a positive attitude. There are so many teachers who do not want to listen to advice, let alone criticism of student input. Yet the essence of communication is two-way flow. One-way communication will not be effective when there is no feedback (feedback) which is the reverse flow of the message recipient. Therefore, in speaking in the classroom, teachers need to be prepared to receive feedback with a positive attitudec) The third law is audible. Meaning of audible among others, can be heard or understood well. Audible means the subject matter presented the teacher can be received by students. This law says that the message should be delivered through the medium or the delivery channel so as to be well received by the message recipient. This law refers to the ability of teachers to use a variety of media or equipment or audio-visual aids that will help teachers to convey the subject matter can be received well.d) The fourth commandment is the clarity of the subject matter presented teachers (clarity). In addition to the message should be received well, the fourth law associated with it is the clarity of the message itself so as not to cause multiple interpretations or different interpretations. Clarity is also highly dependent on the quality of the teacher's voice and the language used. Use of a language not understood by the students, will make the learning objectives can not be achieved. Often people underestimate the importance of clarity in teaching, so do not pay attention to the sound (voice) and the words chosen for use in explaining the subject matter.e) The law is the fifth in explaining the attitude of humility (humble). This attitude is an element associated with the first law to establish a sense of respect for others, usually based on an attitude of humility. Humility also can mean not arrogant and consider themselves important when the teacher explains the subject matter. Precisely with humility warned teachers can capture the attention and positive response from the students.I. Classroom Management SkillsThe success of teachers in teaching is not only determined by factors directly related to the learning process, but also there is another factor, namely the ability to prevent the behavior of students who disrupt the learning process and the available physical condition and processing. For example: learners sleepy, reluctant to do the work, late for class, likes to annoy your friends, ask questions strange, dirty classroom, chairs and so many bedbugs.A. DefinitionClassroom management is the creation of conditions that enable the management of learning can take place optimally.B. Benefits of Classroom Management1) To encourage students to develop individual responsibility and classical in that behave according to the rules as well as the ongoing activity.2) Recognizing the needs of students3) To provide an effective response to student behavior.C. Components Classroom Management1. Skills related to the creation and maintenance of optimal learning conditions, by:a. Indicates the responsivenessb. Dividing attention both visually and verballyc. Focusing on a group of students by demanding responsibility.d. Petnjuk-giving clear instructions.e. Admonish wisely is clear and firm, not the form of a warning or babble and make the rules.f. Provide reinforcement if necessary.2. The skills associated with controlling the optimal learning conditions. These skills are related to the response of teachers to students continuing negative response, there are three types of strategies, namely:a. Modify behaviorThere are three main things that harusdikuasai teachers are:1) To teach a new behavior that is desired by way of example and guidance memberiakn.2) Improve the appearance of good behavior with memberiakan reinforcement / reinforcement either to individuals or to the class.3) Reduce the appearance of poor behavior with punishment (if necessary).b. Management / process groupAt this strategy the group utilized in solving classroom management problems, usually by discussion.c. Find and solve behavior that cause problems. Some of the techniques that can be applied to teachers, namely:1) Abandonment yag planned.2) Interference with gestures.3) Encouraging awareness of students to express their feelings.4) Keep an eye on the close.5) Recognize negative feelings of students.6) Keep objects that will interfere.7) Perform humor.8) physical restraint / seclusion.D. Principles of Classroom Management1. The warmth and enthusiasm in teaching can create a pleasant classroom climate.2. Can use words or actions that can challenge students to think.3. The teacher can do variations4. Flexibility in the implementation of the tasks of teachers needs to be improved.5. Planting self-discipline is the basis of teachers capital.6. The emphasis on things that are positive to note.(Prof. Dr. H. Buchari Alma, MPD. Dkk Teachers Page: 82-84)E. Approaches In Classroom ManagementSpecifically concerning the management of the class (learners) can be individual or keIompok, then to deal with the necessary prudence. Usually the techniques used include: advice, warning, prohibition, threats, exemplary, punitive and so on.According to James Cooper et al. suggests three approaches to classroom management techniques in which there are:1. Approach Alodifikasi Behavior.This approach is based on the behavioral psikalogi with the basic assumption that human behavior, both good and bad within the batastertentu is the result of learning. This approach utilizes the results of research on how where human behavior is formed through the human relationship with the environment in order to formulate techniques that can be reliable in fostering human being, namely:1) Strengthening the negative, namely: a reduction of up to removal of an unpleasant stimulus to encourage the recurrence of a behavior that arises as a result of the reduction and elimination.Example: for example, the teacher wants the students come forward and speak, the teacher always point directly learners who do not come forward and speak in order to issue an opinion (an unpleasant stimulus) .When a time learners come forward and speak without waiting for the appointed teacher then the teacher started to reduce gradually by pointing directly (strengthening negatit). The reduction is increasing in line with the more frequent, learners of expression without designated teachers and eventually eliminated if the students have been accustomed to issuing opinions.Things that need to be avoided in the use of negative reinforcement:a) Avoid painful stimulusb) Its targets clearc) Provision of reinforcement immediatelyd) Presentation of the stimulus varies e) enthusiasm.2) Elimination namely: an attempt to change the behavior of learners with a way to stop giving a response to the behavior of students who initially confirmed by responses tersebut.Sebagai example, a learner who always comment on the teacher's explanation when the teacher was explaining, for example, may be due to any time learners comment on the teacher's explanation, the teacher always gave a response which gives the impression to the students that the teacher does not object to the comments of such comments (when teachers actually do not expect a comment like that). To reduce the artau eliminate such habits, one technique that can be used is the elimination, is to stop giving the impression the response gives learners that teachers do not berkebertaan against habits such learners.Things that need to be considered in the elimination of the use, namely:a) To reduce the disappointment of learners as a result of the removal of pengukuh expected, this technique should be combined with other techniques, particularly the technique of positive reinforcement, if it turns out there are things that are done by learners.b) If a teacher is difficult to find a reinforcement that shape the behavior of learners, and after try some pengukuh failed, other techniques should be used so that learners are not very soluble in behavior to be removed lersebut.c) It takes a relatively long time to eliminate the behavior of learners who use you deviate when the erasure techniques. While the elimination of ongoing and learners to act very disturbing the smooth process of learning, such menyebab the learners classmates laugh prolonged, this technique should not be continued use and replaced with other techniques.d) When a reinforcement has been set to not be given to learners, then as far as possible the strengthening of diberikan.Untuk not there needs to be coordination among the teaching staff in order to avoid some teachers do not provide reinforcement, on the other hand there are teachers who remain memberikan.Bila such event the case will be more difficult to remove the behavior of learners who are deviant.3) Penalties.Presentation of an unpleasant stimulus to eliminate immediately the behavior of learners that are not desired.Things that need to be considered in the use of punishment:a) As far as possible the rules of punishment was created jointly between the teacher and the learner or the minimum agreed upon by the participants didik.Dengan so he is more sincere if convicted.b) Penalties should be provided as soon as a violation occurs so that learners memilikik strong impression on the relationship between the offense and the punishment.c) To the extent possible punishment combined with other techniques, especially the technique of positive reinforcement, if any O-positives in self-learners.d) After punishing learners, teachers should be natural as before that relationship may be impaired as a result of penalties should be restored.e) The forms used vary hukukman so that learners do not become saturated or immune to some form of punishment.2. Social Emotional Approach claimThis approach is based on the clinical and counseling psychology, with the basic assumption that the learning process effective and efficient requires good emotional social relationships between teachers and learners and between learners. The teacher is seen plays an important rolein creating good relations. Experience in daily life shows us that if our relationship with partners working well, various kejasama activities can take place smoothly. And if there is a misunderstanding easy way out. Accordingly it is with the learning process at school, when the relationship between teachers and learners well, then the learning process can take place smoothly, misunderstandings that arise can be resolved easily.1) The general attitude, ie open, accept and appreciate learners as human beings, empathy, discuss the situation and the offense is not the culprit, democratic (involving learners in decisions concerning their interests).2) special attitude. Rudolf Dreikurs and Pearl Cassel grouping behavior of learners that normally interfere with the learning process into four kinds:a) Learners who have attracted the attention of behavior will always try to wear a variety of ways unfuk attract the attention of teachers. He might laugh louder than his friends, often tease friends disebeiahnya, malingering, pretending not to understand that asking questions and sebagainnya. Such things should be left alone, indifferent.b) Students who have mastered the behavior will always try to beat the lain.Bila could not reasonably, he would get angry and aggressive action, or otherwise withdraw completely clan does not want to implement this kewajibannya.Hal overcome by giving the task to lead requiring kebera man or physical strength.c) Students who have behavioral revenge will always do acts that hurt others both physically and psychologically. This leave it to psychologists and teachers only assist its implementation in the classroom.d) Learners who have felt inadequate behavior would always say that he was not able to do tugas.Karena bisannya he believes will fail or feel like a failure before it began. This should not be blamed directly but provide encouragement and guidance.3. Process Approach groups.This approach is based on the psychology and group dynamics, with the basic assumption that the process is effective and efficient learning takes place in the context of groups, namely the class. Therefore, the role of the teacher in the management of the class is to create a class that has a strong bond and can work effectively and efficiently. At the beginning of the lesson, the students are usually still the crowd with goals, thoughts, feelings are very different. The task of teachers is mixing personal interests are the interests of the group, the crowd rnenjadi then formed a group with a strong bond and are able to work together productively. In order to bind a crowd of students into one group that has a strong bond, there are a number of elements that diperlukan.Unsur-essential elements that are necessary are goals, rules, and leader.1) Purpose Group.Because students typically attend classes with different objectives, then the first task of the teacher is directing the students to class destination, especially The purpose indicator that can encourage businesses to mencapainnya include clear objectives and realistic. Therefore, teachers need to formulate realistic goals and communicate clearly to learners.2) Rules.Rules that are capable of binding students into a cohesive group is a rule that can be made jointly between teachers and learners, or at least approved by learners. If there are students who do not approve of rules in the group will reduce the holding capacity of these rules.3) Leader.A teacher by itself would be the leader of a group of students in a class he taught. As the leader of the first things that must be done is to explain the purpose of the group and establish the rules of the group. In addition Emitter create and maintain a healthy work environment groups there are some things that need to be done, which is to encourage and equalize participation, work out a compromise, reducing tensions, clarify communication, resolve conflict between individuals or between groups and indicate the presence and apply sanctions.Bibliography1. Alma Buchari, (2010). Teachers Mastering Teaching Methods and Skilled. Alfabeta Bandung.2. Mulyasa, Enco. (2007). Being Teachers, Creating Learning Creative and Fun. Bandung: PT Young Rosdakarya.3. Usman, Uzer. (2006). Being Teachers. Bandung: PT Young Rosdakarya4. Moh. Uzer Usman, Being Teachers, (Bandung: PT Young Rosdakarya, 1992), Cet. 45. George Brown, Micro Teaching: teaching skills program, (Surabaya: Airlangga University Press, 1991)6. Wiryawan, Sri Anitah and Noorhadi. Teaching and Learning Strategies. Jakarta: UT 1999

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